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Educational laboratory facility for rectification process research

Rectification process is one of the basic technological processes of food, chemical, petrochemical and other industries. Preparation of the qualified engineering personnel and specialists of middle technical echelon provides implementation in educational process of practical laboratory processes researches with implementation of modern educational labware.

Introduction

 

Rectification process is one of the basic technological processes of food, chemical, petrochemical and other industries. Preparation of the qualified engineering personnel and specialists of middle technical echelon provides implementation in educational process of practical laboratory processes researches with implementation of modern educational labware.

The long-term plan of perfection of educational and laboratory base on one of basic courses of educational process has been developed with that end in view. The plan is successfully realized. Specific labware is furnished with modern microprocessors, measuring and adjusting apparatuses and sensors which allow visualizing practically all measured parameters of process that is the essential improvement feature of methodical support for laboratory researches, improvement and expansion of didactic possibilities for laboratory experimental equipment.

The result of the latest teamwork is the creation of an educational facility for practical studying of the process of separation of homogeneous liquid mixes - the rectification process.

Facility Description.

The facility consists of tray fractional column (RK) with screen trays (diameter of the column is 150 mm, number of plates - 10 pieces, distance between plates - 220 mm), bottom of the column (КК) in volume of 130 l, fractional distillation tube (DF) (heat exchange area F=1м?) and phlegm divider (FD).

In order to visualize the process of interaction of steam and liquid phases on trays the column is produced from glass cylinder shells. Control and measuring and adjusting apparatuses are equipped with RS-485 interface that allows connecting it to computer network of chair, university and ensures possibility of remote realization of laboratory work.

In order to divide the liquid homogeneous mix of ethyl spirit and water on components it is filled in a column base (КК). Initial concentration of ethyl spirit filled in the bottom of the column - 10 %. Fire-bar elements established in the base of column are boiling the mix and thus formed steam is lifted upwards on a column and interacts with a liquid of a column flowing down on trays from top to bottom after facility will start to work in operation mode. As a result of such interaction, the profile of ethyl spirit concentration is set on trays - on the uppermost plate - 96 % of spirit is established. The amount of steam stream in the column is controlled automatically and regulated in accordance to pressure difference which is created by the steam on column plates. This pressure difference is measured by the pressure meter (DD) - Zond10-ID-1021 - with current output equal to 4-20 mA. The secondary device is the TRM101-IR PID control, whose control action by means of the BUST block operates current of power symistors of the BSS1 block in whose chain the TEN1 heating element is included.

Switching to manual control of column steam stream by means of manual power demand (RZM) is possible. That allows carrying out researches of hydrodynamic spray carry-over influence on qualitative characteristics of contact trays of the column. Power consumption of heating coils in column cub is defined by the electronic counter of electric meter of Merkuriy -230 (32,000 pulses/kWh) type and SI-8 meter in the consumption measurement mode. Vapor which are leaving the column are condensed in shell-and-tube (DF) and condensate flows.

Water of water supply system which is regulated by valve (VR2) is used as a refrigerant for condensation, and its consumption is controlled by digital ultrasonic meter (SV) of ULTRAFLOW type manufactured by KAMSTRUP (Denmark) which transmits 300 impulses/liters to the external device which is the pulse counter SI-8 in the mode of consumption measurement. Water temperature on input and output of fractional distillation tube is measured by thermometers of resistance sensors TSM -50 (Т14, Т15). The secondary device is gauge TRM-200.

The condensate is splitted on two streams in phlegm divider: one comes back to irrigate the column (it is called phlegm), and the second is selected as a ready product (it is called distillate). Volumes of these streams are measured by means of analogue rotameter R1 and R2. Consistently with rotameter R1 the digital ultrasonic flow meter СФ of ULTRAFLOW type is included (the secondary device is pulse counter SI8 in the mode of consumption measurement) in the phlegm stream. Ratio of streams of phlegm and distillate (reflux ratio) is regulated by means of valve VR1. The condensate in ДФ overcools in order to reduce ethanol losses in the form of vapor, therefore when phlegm is returning to РК it heats up to boiling temperature on the 10th tray by electro heater TEN2 included in the scheme of BSS2 block triacs power load, and PID control ТРМ-101-ИР provides its accurate maintenance (±0.1°С). The distillate stream comes back to the column cube. The phlegm temperature is measured by the resistance sensor of TSM-50V (Т12) type.

Liquid structures on column trays are defined by means of indirect parameters - boiling temperature of liquid, measured on each tray (Т1-Т10) by resistance sensors TSM-50. Steam temperature (Т11) and boiling temperature of liquid in the column cube (Т16) is measured also by resistance sensors of TSM-50 type. Two-channel temperature meters TRM-200 are used as secondary devices. Presence of safe level of liquid in the column cube is controlled by means of conductometric sensor DU of level meter SAU-M7E, which executive relay contacts are included in the scheme of electric blocking of heating control.

Interface adapter RS485/USB Oven AS4 is used to communicate devices with PC.

Features of Laboratory Researches Execution.

Devices mounted on installation allow carrying out of experiments at various reflux ratios, and also they provide possibility of smooth regulation of a steam stream on the column, influencing on interaction of hydrodynamic conditions between liquid and steam. Thus students have the full set of disturbance parameters on processes of heat/mass exchange between steam and liquid on column trays while carrying out of experiments on the column. That allows investigating their influence on kinetic characteristics of mixture distribution process, i.e. rectification process in order to reveal optimum parameters of distribution experimentally, and to vindicate them by calculations, i.e. to confirm adequacy of the process mathematical model.

Use on installation of one point measuring devices (one parameter - one device) allows to visualize a current stationary profile of temperatures (concentration) by means of height rectifying still (object with distributed parameters), and also allows to observe dynamical change of this profile at application of disturbing influence, which is very competent technical decision in the course of training of students from the methodical point of view.

The list of educational laboratory facilities planned for working out and manufacturing:

•Convection drying kinetics studying;

•Energy consumption for carrying out of mixing process determination;

•Gravitational settling kinetics;

•Adsorption plant;

•Evaporator system and others.